Research Paper

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πŸ“„ Design and simulation of a control for the opening and closing of the side ventilation

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Submitted by Elsewhere on 2021-Jan-22 Fri 08:45
2021-Jan-22 Fri 08:45

An optimal control for the opening and closing of the side ventilation windows of a greenhouse can be obtained from a mathematical model of the crop and the greenhouse. In the greenhouse model, control input is the ventilation, and to carry out the instrumentation in the immediate future, this term we…

πŸ“„ Study on rapid detection of nutrient content of hydroponically grown lettuce cultivars

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Submitted by Elsewhere on 2021-Jan-22 Fri 08:45
2021-Jan-22 Fri 08:45

The analyses of online quality measurements of four lettuce cultivars (Rex, Tacitus, Black Seeded Simpson, Flandria) using hyperspectral image processing techniques have been studied. Seedlings were planted in Rock-wool cubes and fed for 3 weeks using hydroponic nutrient solution containing 0, 50, 100,…

πŸ“„ Unmanned Aerial Vehicles in Agriculture: A Survey

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Submitted by Elsewhere on 2021-Jan-21 Thu 11:15
2021-Jan-21 Thu 11:15

The number of tasks that nowadays are accomplished by using unmanned aerial vehicles is rising across many civil applications, including agriculture. Thus, this work aims at providing the reader with an overview of the agronomical use of unmanned aerial vehicles. The work starts with a historical analysis of the use of aircrafts in agriculture, as pioneers of their use in modern precision agriculture techniques, currently applied by a high number of users. This survey has been carried out by providing a classification of the vehicles according to their typology and main sensorial and performance features. An extensive review of the most common applications and the advantages of using unmanned aerial vehicles is the core of the work. Finally, a brief summary of the key points of the legislation applicable to civil drones that could affect to agricultural applications is analyzed.

πŸ“„ New study about the effects of the insect screens in agriculture

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Submitted by Elsewhere on 2021-Jan-18 Mon 09:11
2021-Jan-18 Mon 09:11

Environmental pressure poses a major challenge to the agricultural sector, which requires the development of cultivation techniques that can effectively reduce the impact of abiotic stress affecting crop yield and quality (e.g., thermal stress, wind, and hail) and of biotic factors, such as insect pests.…

πŸ“„ Theoretical Foundation of the Control of Pollination by Hoverflies in a Greenhouse

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Submitted by Elsewhere on 2021-Jan-18 Mon 05:00
2021-Jan-18 Mon 05:00

We propose a conceptual model for pollination and fertilization of tomato flowers in greenhouses crops by hoverflies, when the maximal number of adult pollinators maintained by the crops is less than what is needed for an economically successful pollination in greenhouses. The model consists of a two-stage process for additional feeding of hoverfly to maintain the pollinator density at the economically desired level. First, with a stochastic model, we calculate the density of flies necessary for the economically successful pollination, determined according to the economically expected yield. Second, using a deterministic optimal control model, we find a minimum cost supplementary feeding strategy. In summary, we theoretically demonstrate, at the present stage of the research without validations in case studies, that optimal supplementary feeding can maintain the economically desired hoverfly density.

πŸ“„ New study on LED lighting strategies in eggplants

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Submitted by Elsewhere on 2021-Jan-14 Thu 06:16
2021-Jan-14 Thu 06:16

Over the last decade, LED lighting has gained considerable interest as an energy-efficient supplemental light source in greenhouse horticulture that can change rapidly in intensity and spectral composition. Spectral composition not only affects crop physiology but may also affect the biology of…

πŸ“„ New research on use of irrigation and nitrogen in tomato greenhouses

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Submitted by Elsewhere on 2021-Jan-11 Mon 09:07
2021-Jan-11 Mon 09:07

Greenhouse industry has been rapidly expanded worldwide. An accurate partitioning evapotranspiration (ET) into transpiration (T r) and evaporation (E s) is critical for developing precise irrigation scheduling and enhancing water productivity in greenhouses. In a new research, a team proposed a modified…

πŸ“„ Global food security given another boost with new wheat variety

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Submitted by Elsewhere on 2021-Jan-06 Wed 18:16
2021-Jan-06 Wed 18:16

An international consortium of scientists has developed a hardy new wheat variety that is resistant to a particularly virulent fungal disease that threatens global food security.

πŸ“„ Influence of Atomization Nozzles and Spraying Intervals on Growth, Biomass Yield, and Nutrient Uptake of Butter-Head Lettuce under Aeroponics System

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Submitted by Elsewhere on 2021-Jan-06 Wed 05:00
2021-Jan-06 Wed 05:00

The atomized nutrient solution droplet sizes and spraying intervals can impact the chemical properties of the nutrient solution, biomass yield, root-to-shoot ratio and nutrient uptake of aeroponically cultivated plants. In this study, four different nozzles having droplet sizes N1 = 11.24, N2 = 26.35, N3 = 17.38 and N4 = 4.89 µm were selected and misted at three nutrient solution spraying intervals of 30, 45 and 60 min, with a 5 min spraying time. The measured parameters were power of hydrogen (pH) and electrical conductivity (EC) values of the nutrient solution, shoot and root growth, ratio of roots to shoots (fresh and dry), biomass yield and nutrient uptake. The results indicated that the N1 presented significantly lower changes in chemical properties than those of N2, N3 and N4, resulting in stable lateral root growth and increased biomass yield. Also, the root-to-shoot ratio significantly increased with increasing spraying interval using N1 and N4 nozzles. The N1 nozzle also revealed a significant effect on the phosphorous, potassium and magnesium uptake by the plants misted at proposed nutrient solution spraying intervals. However, the ultrasonic nozzle showed a nonsignificant effect on all measured parameters with respect to spraying intervals.

πŸ“„ Improving Water Use Efficiency by Optimizing the Root Distribution Patterns under Varying Drip Emitter Density and Drought Stress for Cherry Tomato

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Submitted by Elsewhere on 2020-Dec-22 Tue 10:00
2020-Dec-22 Tue 10:00

The spatial distribution of root systems in the soil has major impacts on soil water and nutrient uptake and ultimately crop yield. This research aimed to optimize the root distribution patterns, growth, and yield of cherry tomato by using a number of emitters per plant. A randomized complete block design technique was adopted by selecting eight treatments with two irrigation regimes and four levels of emitters under greenhouse conditions. The experiment results showed that the root distribution extended over the entire pot horizontally and shifted vertically upwards with increased emitter density. The deficit irrigation resulted in reduced horizontal root extension and shifted the root concentrations deeper. Notably, tomato plants with two emitters per plant and deficit irrigation treatment showed an optimal root distribution compared to the other treatments, showing wider and deeper dispersion measurements and higher root length density and root weight density through the soil with the highest benefit–cost ratio (1.3 and 1.1 cm cm−3, 89.8 and 77.7 µg cm−3, and 4.20 and 4.24 during spring–summer and fall-winter cropping seasons, respectively).

πŸ“„ Plants have a body clock as well research shows

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Submitted by Elsewhere on 2020-Dec-21 Mon 11:04
2020-Dec-21 Mon 11:04

This research highlights a single letter change in their DNA code can potentially decide whether a plant is a lark or a night owl. The findings may help farmers and crop breeders to select plants with clocks that are best suited to their location, helping to boost yield and even the ability to withstand…

πŸ“„Using Temporally Resolved Floral Resource Maps to Explain Bumblebee Colony Performance in Agricultural Landscapes

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Submitted by Elsewhere on 2020-Dec-18 Fri 11:15
2020-Dec-18 Fri 11:15

Wild bumblebees are key pollinators of crops and wild plants that rely on the continuous availability of floral resources. A better understanding of the spatio-temporal availability and use of floral food resources may help to promote bumblebees and their pollination services in agricultural landscapes. We placed colonies of Bombus terrestris L. in 24 agricultural landscapes with various degrees of floral resource availability and assessed different parameters of colony growth and fitness. We estimated pollen availability during different periods of colony development based on detailed information of the bumblebee pollen diet and the spatial distribution of the visited plant species. Total pollen availability did not significantly explain colony growth or fitness. However, when using habitat maps, the weight gain of colonies, the number of queen cells, and colony survival decreased with increasing distance from the forest. The better explanation of bumblebee performance by forest proximity than by (plant-inferred) pollen availability indicates that other functions of forests than pollen provision were important. The conservation of forests next to agricultural land might help to sustain high populations of these important wild pollinators and enhance their crop pollination services. Combining different mapping approaches might help to further disentangle complex relationships between B. terrestris and their environment in agricultural landscapes.

πŸ“„ Effect of grafting and harvest stage on the quality of black cherry tomatoes cultivated in Vietnam

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Submitted by Elsewhere on 2020-Dec-18 Fri 11:15
2020-Dec-18 Fri 11:15

Black cherry tomato is an important source of nutraceutical compounds; however, the quality of fruits depends on the cultivation technique and maturity stage at harvest. In a recent study, the physical and chemical properties of non-grafted and grafted tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum cv. OG) were…

πŸ“„ Turn up the heat, and get more nutrition from your tomato

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Submitted by Elsewhere on 2020-Dec-18 Fri 11:15
2020-Dec-18 Fri 11:15

Turn up the heat, and get more nutrition from your tomato, University of Florida researchers say. Furthermore, when you buy a tomato, it will be about as red as it can be, thanks to the UF/IFAS methods deployed for the study. The findings are crucial to an industry in which Florida ranks second to…

πŸ“„ Monitoring and controlling water quality in aquaponics

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Submitted by Elsewhere on 2020-Dec-18 Fri 11:15
2020-Dec-18 Fri 11:15

This research shows that Recirculating Aquaculture Systems (RAS) are an environmentally friendly alternative to conventional fish production methods and enable fish breeders to significantly reduce the nutrient loads on adjacent water bodies due to production. Therefore, RAS can be seen as an important…

πŸ“„ Shelf-Life of Bunched Carrots as Affected by Nitrogen Fertilization and Leaf Presence

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Submitted by Elsewhere on 2020-Dec-16 Wed 14:45
2020-Dec-16 Wed 14:45

Nitrogen (N) fertilization is essential for adequate earliness and the commercial attractiveness of carrots, but its excess could generate fast decay during postharvest, mostly in bunched carrots exhibiting their highly perishable leaves. A field experiment was conducted over the 2016–2017 growing season to address the effects of two N fertilization rates (120 and 240 kg N ha−1, hereafter N120 and N240, respectively) and leaf presence/absence (leaf+ and leaf−) on physicochemical and compositional traits of carrots cv. ‘Dordogne’, after storage at 4.0 ± 0.5 °C, 95–96% relative humidity (RH) for 0, 3, 6, 12, and 24 days (hereafter S0–S24). Before storage, carrots were arranged in bunches and packaged in common low-density polyethylene (LDPE) pouches (thickness 95 μm), 54 × 24 cm size, with 16 holes of 5 mm size. N240 carrots compared to N120 showed higher cumulative weight loss (CWL) and firmness reduction, with differences at S24 equal to 108 vs. 41 g kg−1 fresh weight (FW) and 13.3 vs. 14.5 N, respectively. N240 compared to N120 increased also the color deviation (ΔE*ab, +126%) and nitrates content (+93%) of carrots and slowed down their temporal increase of total polyphenols and antioxidant activity.

πŸ“„ Seed longevity: How long do the seeds survive under appropriate storage conditions?

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Submitted by Elsewhere on 2020-Dec-15 Tue 12:16
2020-Dec-15 Tue 12:16

The Genebank Project is a national project of Japan operated by the National Agriculture and Food Research Organization (NARO) since 1985. The NARO Genebank is responsible for the conservation of plant genetic resources to provide materials for both scientific research and plant breeding to improve food…

πŸ“„ Influence of Environmental Factors Light, CO2, Temperature, and Relative Humidity on Stomatal Opening and Development: A Review

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Submitted by Elsewhere on 2020-Dec-15 Tue 11:15
2020-Dec-15 Tue 11:15

Stomata, the microscopic pores surrounded by a pair of guard cells on the surfaces of leaves and stems, play an essential role in regulating the gas exchange between a plant and the surrounding atmosphere. Stomatal development and opening are significantly influenced by environmental conditions, both in the short and long term. The rapid rate of current climate change has been affecting stomatal responses, as a new balance between photosynthesis and water-use efficiency has to be found. Understanding the mechanisms involved in stomatal regulation and adjustment provides us with new insights into the ability of stomata to process information and evolve over time. In this review, we summarize the recent advances in research on the underlying mechanisms of the interaction between environmental factors and stomatal development and opening. Specific emphasis is placed on the environmental factors including light, CO2 concentration, ambient temperature, and relative humidity, as these factors play a significant role in understanding the impact of global climate change on plant development.

πŸ“„ The interaction between salinity and nutrient solution temperatures

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Submitted by Elsewhere on 2020-Dec-14 Mon 08:45
2020-Dec-14 Mon 08:45

A large number of studies on salinity in hydroponic systems have been carried out, but few of them have evaluated the interaction between salinity and nutrient solution temperatures. In Brazil, two experiments were carried out in a randomized block design from January to February (Experiment I) and June…

πŸ“„ Growing Medium Type Affects Organic Fertilizer Mineralization and CNPS Microbial Enzyme Activities

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Submitted by Elsewhere on 2020-Dec-14 Mon 05:00
2020-Dec-14 Mon 05:00

Managing plant fertilization is a major concern of greenhouse growers to achieve sustainable production with growing media. Organic fertilization is popular but is more difficult to control, since organic compounds need first to be mineralized by microbes. After 7, 14, 28, and 56 days of incubation, we investigated the response of microbial activities and nutrient releases from three frequently used organic fertilizers (horn and two plant-based fertilizers) in three frequently employed growing media (GM) types (peat, coir, and bark). We measured pH, electrical conductivity, nutrient contents (NH4+-N, NO3−-N, PO43−-P, SO42−-S), and enzyme activities (β-1.4-glucosidase, urease, acid phosphatase, arylsulfatase). After fertilization, microbes in coir expressed all the C, N, P, and S functions studied, making related nutrients available. In peat and bark, some C, N, P, and S-related pathways were locked. Peat presented high NH4+-N and PO43−-P releases linked to high acid phosphatase and β-glucosidase activities, while bark showed high nitrification rates but weak enzyme activities. Fertilizer types modulated these responses with lower activities and nutrient releases with horn. Our results contributed to better understanding mineralization processes in GM, showing different microbial responses to fertilization.

πŸ“„ Blocking light for postgrafting healing researched

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Submitted by Elsewhere on 2020-Dec-11 Fri 11:15
2020-Dec-11 Fri 11:15

The use of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) grafting is gaining traction across the United States, but small-scale growers face the challenge of creating optimum postgrafting healing conditions. The practice of blocking light for a period of 2 to 4 days while maintaining high humidity is commonly…

πŸ“„ Genetic Characterization, Agro-Morphological and Physiological Evaluation of Grafted Tomato under Salinity Stress Conditions

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Submitted by Elsewhere on 2020-Dec-11 Fri 11:15
2020-Dec-11 Fri 11:15

This study aims to determine grafting’s efficiency to improve tomato growth and production under salinity stress conditions. A commercial tomato hybrid (cv. Bark) and eight wild tomato accessions were evaluated at molecular, physiological and agronomic levels. At the molecular level, two robust gene-targeting marker systems (Conserved DNA-Derived Polymorphism; CDDP and Start Codon Targeted Polymorphism; SCoT) were employed. Bark cv. was grafted as a scion onto the four tomato genotypes’ roots as stocks. The rootstocks effect was evaluated by growing plants at 0, 100 and 200 mM NaCl. Our results showed that grafting enhanced plant shoots and roots growth (plant height, number of branches, plant fresh weight, root length, and root fresh and dry weight), fruit yield (total yield, number and weight of fruits) and fruit quality (Vitamin C, firmness and total soluble solids) in Bark on most tested rootstocks. A significant interaction between salinity levels and rootstocks for all measured hormones, antioxidants and proline was observed. In conclusion, our consistent results from the three approaches (molecular, physiological and agronomical) revealed that the four genotypes (LA1995, LA2711, LA2485 and LA3845) were found to be grouped and exhibit better performance under salinity stress conditions. Furthermore, grafting could be a low-cost alternative method to improve salt tolerance in sensitive tomato genotypes.

Growth of Cucumber Scions, Rootstocks, and Grafted Seedlings

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Submitted by Elsewhere on 2020-Dec-10 Thu 14:45
2020-Dec-10 Thu 14:45

Irrigation scheduling and programming are very effective tools for efficient water use in a plant factory with artificial lighting (PFAL). In order to confirm optimal irrigation schemes for the production of cucumber scions and rootstocks in a PFAL, in this study, four different start points of irrigation were applied by measuring the weight of the plug tray to compare the growth of cucumber scions and rootstocks cultivated in a PFAL. Additionally, the growth characteristics of cucumber seedlings grafted with scions and rootstocks cultivated between in a greenhouse and in a PFAL were investigated. Although the growth of cucumber scions and rootstocks was highest when irrigation was conducted at 70% of water content in a medium, the growth of grafted cucumber seedlings before and after transplanting was not significantly different among the irrigation treatments in a PFAL. However, water use efficiency (WUE) during cucumber scions and rootstock production in a PFAL was higher at 60% than at 70%. Considering seedling growth and the efficiency of irrigation such as WUE and irrigation schedule, the optimal start point of irrigation during the production of cucumber scions and rootstocks in a PFAL was determined as 60% of water content in a medium.

πŸ“„ Tomatoes offer affordable source of Parkinson’s disease drug

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Submitted by Elsewhere on 2020-Dec-10 Thu 13:30
2020-Dec-10 Thu 13:30

Scientists have produced a tomato enriched in the Parkinson’s disease drug L-DOPA in what could become a new, affordable source of one of the world’s essential medicines. The development of the genetically modified (GM) tomato has implications for developing nations where access to pharmaceutical drugs…

πŸ“„ Evaluation of a Legume-Derived Protein Hydrolysate to Mitigate Iron Deficiency in Plants

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Submitted by Elsewhere on 2020-Dec-10 Thu 05:00
2020-Dec-10 Thu 05:00

Biostimulants play an important role in the development of management practices able to reach adequate productivity to meet the food demand of a growing world population, while following a sustainable agriculture model. This work aims to evaluate the effect of a protein hydrolysate derived from legume seeds by enzymatic hydrolysis on plant growth and also to verify its ability to mitigate Fe deficiency, a widespread problem significantly limiting plant growth and crop productivity. Experiments were performed with tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.—cv. AKRAI F1) and cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.—cv. EKRON F1). The plants were grown hydroponically under adequate or limited Fe supply. Changes in shoot and root fresh weight, leaf relative chlorophyll content and the accumulation of macro- and microelements in shoots and roots were measured. Plant ability to cope with Fe deficiency was measured by evaluating the activity of root Fe3+-chelate reductase. Our results indicate that the foliar treatments with the protein hydrolysate did not significantly affect growth parameters when plants were grown in full nutrient solution. However, the biostimulant was able to improve the growth performance of Fe-deficient plants. Therefore, the protein hydrolysate can be a powerful tool to stimulate crop growth under Fe-deficient environments, leading to reduced fertilizer inputs with related environmental and economic benefits.

An Ongoing Blended Long-Term Vegetation Health Product for Monitoring Global Food Security

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Submitted by Elsewhere on 2020-Dec-09 Wed 11:15
2020-Dec-09 Wed 11:15

Remotely observing global vegetation from space has endured for nearly 50 years. Many datasets have been developed to monitor vegetation status. Tailored to specifically monitor global food security concerning drought and crop yield, a suite of datasets based on vegetation health concepts and Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) observation was developed in the 1980s and utilized throughout the world. Nowadays, satellites based imaging radiometers have evolved into the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) era. With proper algorithm development, the blended version of the data suite, composed of the AVHRR dataset from 1981 to 2012 and VIIRS dataset from 2013 and afterwards, has bridged the long-term AVHRR observation and high-quality VIIRS data. This paper explains the blended version of the data suite.

πŸ“„ India: Management of aphid and whitefly on capsicum under protected cultivation

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Submitted by Elsewhere on 2020-Dec-09 Wed 11:15
2020-Dec-09 Wed 11:15

The peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and silver leaf whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) are the major pests of capsicum under protected cultivation. The entomopathogenic fungi (EPF) are environmentally safe than the chemical pesticides. In a new study, different EPF…

πŸ“„ Biochar Alters Soil Physical Characteristics, Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi Colonization, and Glomalin Production

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Submitted by Elsewhere on 2020-Dec-09 Wed 05:00
2020-Dec-09 Wed 05:00

Soil enhancements such as biochar (BC) are gaining attention as tools to mitigate climate change and also to promote crop growth. However, biochar use can disrupt soil ecosystems by changing the soil’s physical, chemical, and biological properties. The study aimed to determine how biochar influences soil physical changes such as specific surface area (SSA) and water vapor sorption, and how these conditions affect arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) hyphae growth and glomalin production. The study analyzed these factors at different plant phenological phases (i.e., flowering, development of fruit, and ripening of fruit and seed) to better understand the changes within the system while varying biochar amounts. The study also investigated the effect of different soil physical and chemical parameters on mycorrhizal hyphae growth and glomalin production. Four treatments were investigated: 0, 0.5%, 2.5%, and 5.0% (w/w) biochar amended silt loam soil planted with pepper. Soil samples were taken at the beginning and weeks 6, 10, and 12 of the study. The amount of adsorbed water vapor increased with an increasing amount of biochar added to the soils. Compared to control, SSA was significantly higher in all biochar amended treatments based on adsorption data, and only in the highest biochar amended soils for the desorption data at the end of the experiment.

πŸ“„ "Tomato plants do not need all nutrients at once for quality fruits"

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Submitted by Elsewhere on 2020-Dec-08 Tue 13:30
2020-Dec-08 Tue 13:30

Fertigation is considered an efficient alternative to the enhanced use of chemical fertilizers. Since most of the fertigation systems rely on a theoretical electrical conductivity value of the nutrient solution, a team of Romanian researchers tried to evaluate if this is the real need of the plants as…

πŸ“„ Datasheet report for bacterial spot of tomato and pepper

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Submitted by Elsewhere on 2020-Dec-08 Tue 03:43
2020-Dec-08 Tue 03:43

Bacterial spot of tomato and pepper caused by what we now know as X. euvesicatoria pv. euvesicatoria was described for the first time on tomato in 1920 in South Africa. Nowadays, bacterial spot is the name used to describe a specific set of symptoms on peppers and tomatoes - caused by four xanthomonad…