Irrigation

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This Self-Watering Indoor Garden Makes It Easier Than Ever to Grow Fruits and Veggies

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Submitted by Elsewhere on 2021-Jan-19 Tue 10:53
2021-Jan-19 Tue 10:53
2753

Thanks to living through a global pandemic, many of us have significantly reduced our visits to stores and supermarkets. When it comes to fresh produce, delivery services are often disappointing, as they often mix up orders or simply don’t have what we need when we need it. Rather than go without, there’s a better option for getting immune boosting fresh fruits and vegetables without ever leaving the safety of your own home: the Lettuce Grow Farmstand indoor garden. Under the premise healthy food for everyone, Lettuce Grow simplifies urban gardening so that anyone can harvest their own fresh fruits, vegetables and herbs from the comfort of home.

Drones capable of watering cabbages without human intervention

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Submitted by Elsewhere on 2021-Jan-18 Mon 09:11
2021-Jan-18 Mon 09:11
2747

The US Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) is still developing rules on the use of drones, but individual companies are gradually getting some kind of license.  Now, the FAA for the first time approved fully automatic drone flights for commercial purposes. The permit was issued to a small Massachusetts company,…

New in-line fertilizer injection and irrigation unit showcased

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Submitted by Elsewhere on 2021-Jan-15 Fri 06:16
2021-Jan-15 Fri 06:16
2731

GHBD Holland B.V., manufacturer and supplier of water treatment equipment for the horticultural and agricultural industry, introduces the new In-line fertilizer injection and irrigation unit. Jan Wijgerse of GHBD Holland has years of experience in exporting this equipment to many countries and knows the…

"In winter, hydroponic irrigation must be adjusted to avoid problems caused by excess water"

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Submitted by Elsewhere on 2021-Jan-13 Wed 13:19
2021-Jan-13 Wed 13:19
2711

In winter, low temperatures, high humidity and a lack of light can lead to the appearance of pathogenic fungi or to problems caused by the degradation of the plants' root system, mainly due to inadequate irrigation. Although the meteorological conditions that affect the crop are not the same in summer as…

📄 New research on use of irrigation and nitrogen in tomato greenhouses

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Submitted by Elsewhere on 2021-Jan-11 Mon 09:07
2021-Jan-11 Mon 09:07
2682

Greenhouse industry has been rapidly expanded worldwide. An accurate partitioning evapotranspiration (ET) into transpiration (T r) and evaporation (E s) is critical for developing precise irrigation scheduling and enhancing water productivity in greenhouses. In a new research, a team proposed a modified…

📄 Influence of Atomization Nozzles and Spraying Intervals on Growth, Biomass Yield, and Nutrient Uptake of Butter-Head Lettuce under Aeroponics System

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Submitted by Elsewhere on 2021-Jan-06 Wed 05:00
2021-Jan-06 Wed 05:00
2656

The atomized nutrient solution droplet sizes and spraying intervals can impact the chemical properties of the nutrient solution, biomass yield, root-to-shoot ratio and nutrient uptake of aeroponically cultivated plants. In this study, four different nozzles having droplet sizes N1 = 11.24, N2 = 26.35, N3 = 17.38 and N4 = 4.89 µm were selected and misted at three nutrient solution spraying intervals of 30, 45 and 60 min, with a 5 min spraying time. The measured parameters were power of hydrogen (pH) and electrical conductivity (EC) values of the nutrient solution, shoot and root growth, ratio of roots to shoots (fresh and dry), biomass yield and nutrient uptake. The results indicated that the N1 presented significantly lower changes in chemical properties than those of N2, N3 and N4, resulting in stable lateral root growth and increased biomass yield. Also, the root-to-shoot ratio significantly increased with increasing spraying interval using N1 and N4 nozzles. The N1 nozzle also revealed a significant effect on the phosphorous, potassium and magnesium uptake by the plants misted at proposed nutrient solution spraying intervals. However, the ultrasonic nozzle showed a nonsignificant effect on all measured parameters with respect to spraying intervals.

📄 Exogenous Application of Nitric Oxide Mitigates Water Stress and Reduces Natural Viral Disease Incidence of Tomato Plants Subjected to Deficit Irrigation

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Submitted by Elsewhere on 2021-Jan-05 Tue 05:00
2021-Jan-05 Tue 05:00
2647

The present work reveals the beneficial role of sodium nitroprusside (SNP; NO donor concentration: 50 and 100 µM) in mitigation of water stress accompanied by a reduction in viral disease incidence in tomato plants subjected to deficit irrigation. The plants were grown under two irrigation regimes: well-watered (WW; irrigated after the depletion of 55–60% of available soil water) and water deficit (WD; irrigated after the depletion of 85–90% of available soil water) in two seasons of 2018 and 2019. The results indicated that under water stress conditions, plant growth, chlorophyll, relative water content (RWC), and fruit yield were decreased. Conversely, water stress significantly increased the MDA, proline, soluble sugars, and antioxidant enzymes’ activities. Moreover, it was obvious a negligible increase in the fruit content from NO2 and NO3. Water-deficit stress, however, had a positive impact on reducing the percentage of viral disease (TMV and TYLCV) incidence on tomato plants. Similarly, SNP application in the form of foliar spray significantly reduced the disease incidence, the severity, and the relative concentrations of TMV and TYLCV in tomato plants raised under both WW and WD conditions. The treatment of SNP at 100 µM achieved better results and could be recommended to induce tomato plant tolerance to water stress.

📺 New irrigation system with concrete poles

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Submitted by Elsewhere on 2021-Jan-04 Mon 13:30
2021-Jan-04 Mon 13:30
2635

For the company Contec, 2021 will be a year marked by innovation. Indeed, an innovative system for creating artificial rain is being developed and new subsidiaries will be opened. Contec started out as a manufacturer of prestressed concrete transmission poles, but in the meantime it has grown into a…

📄 Improving Water Use Efficiency by Optimizing the Root Distribution Patterns under Varying Drip Emitter Density and Drought Stress for Cherry Tomato

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Submitted by Elsewhere on 2020-Dec-22 Tue 10:00
2020-Dec-22 Tue 10:00
2597

The spatial distribution of root systems in the soil has major impacts on soil water and nutrient uptake and ultimately crop yield. This research aimed to optimize the root distribution patterns, growth, and yield of cherry tomato by using a number of emitters per plant. A randomized complete block design technique was adopted by selecting eight treatments with two irrigation regimes and four levels of emitters under greenhouse conditions. The experiment results showed that the root distribution extended over the entire pot horizontally and shifted vertically upwards with increased emitter density. The deficit irrigation resulted in reduced horizontal root extension and shifted the root concentrations deeper. Notably, tomato plants with two emitters per plant and deficit irrigation treatment showed an optimal root distribution compared to the other treatments, showing wider and deeper dispersion measurements and higher root length density and root weight density through the soil with the highest benefit–cost ratio (1.3 and 1.1 cm cm−3, 89.8 and 77.7 µg cm−3, and 4.20 and 4.24 during spring–summer and fall-winter cropping seasons, respectively).

📄 Parameters of Drainage Waters Collected during Soilless Tomato Cultivation in Mineral and Organic Substrates

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Submitted by Elsewhere on 2020-Dec-21 Mon 05:00
2020-Dec-21 Mon 05:00
2572

The aim was to determine the suitability of various substrates for application in a closed system of soilless tomato cultivation, based on the potential fitness of drainage waters from these substrates for recirculation. Four substrates were used: rockwool, coir substrate, lignite substrate (Carbomat) and biodegradable organic substrate (Biopot). Tomato plants grown in these substrates were fertilized with the same amount of nutrient solution, containing the same concentration of nutrients. The characteristics of drainage water from these substrates were analyzed during cultivation. The highest amount of drainage water was collected from the lignite substrate Carbomat. However, these leachates showed good properties for further recirculation: low electro conductivity and turbidity, high nutrient content, moderate microbial load with high population of Trichoderma fungi, and being beneficial for plant growth. Moreover, Carbomat produced the highest tomato yield compared to other substrates. This indicates that this organic substrate is an efficient alternative to rockwool and its drainage water may be reused in a recirculation system. On the contrary, the drainage water from the Biopot substrate showed the worst qualities: high pH and low EC, low concentration of nitrate nitrogen and phosphorus, very high turbidity and a high number of microorganisms. These parameters do not qualify Biopot drainage waters for reuse.

Growth of Cucumber Scions, Rootstocks, and Grafted Seedlings

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Submitted by Elsewhere on 2020-Dec-10 Thu 14:45
2020-Dec-10 Thu 14:45
2462

Irrigation scheduling and programming are very effective tools for efficient water use in a plant factory with artificial lighting (PFAL). In order to confirm optimal irrigation schemes for the production of cucumber scions and rootstocks in a PFAL, in this study, four different start points of irrigation were applied by measuring the weight of the plug tray to compare the growth of cucumber scions and rootstocks cultivated in a PFAL. Additionally, the growth characteristics of cucumber seedlings grafted with scions and rootstocks cultivated between in a greenhouse and in a PFAL were investigated. Although the growth of cucumber scions and rootstocks was highest when irrigation was conducted at 70% of water content in a medium, the growth of grafted cucumber seedlings before and after transplanting was not significantly different among the irrigation treatments in a PFAL. However, water use efficiency (WUE) during cucumber scions and rootstock production in a PFAL was higher at 60% than at 70%. Considering seedling growth and the efficiency of irrigation such as WUE and irrigation schedule, the optimal start point of irrigation during the production of cucumber scions and rootstocks in a PFAL was determined as 60% of water content in a medium.

📄 Effects of Nutrient Solution Irrigation Quantity and Downy Mildew Infection on Growth and Physiological Traits of Greenhouse Cucumber

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Submitted by Elsewhere on 2020-Dec-08 Tue 03:43
2020-Dec-08 Tue 03:43
2385

Abiotic and biotic stresses both decrease the quality and quantity of cultivated plants. In this study, in order to see the responses of cucumber plants to drought stress and cucumber downy mildew infection, downy mildew infestation at different two levels, B1 (disease infestation) and B2 (no disease infestation), along with three fertigation requirement levels, full fertigation T1, moderate nutrient solution deficit T2 and severe nutrient solution deficit T3, were applied in a greenhouse. Thus, six treatments, i.e., B1T1, B1T2, B1T3, B2T1, B2T2 and B2T3, were set. The leaf gas-exchange parameters were significantly increased under CK (control experiment, B2T1: no disease infestation and full irrigation) treatment, and leaf photosynthesis rate, transpiration rate and stomatal conductance were significantly decreased under the B1T1 treatment. Leaf intercellular CO2 concentration was significantly increased under B1T1 treatment. Leaf photosynthesis rate, transpiration rate, intercellular CO2 concentration and stomatal conductance were significantly decreased under B1T2, B1T3, B2T2 and B2T3 treatments.

Planning for precision irrigation

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Submitted by Elsewhere on 2020-Dec-03 Thu 14:53
2020-Dec-03 Thu 14:53
2352

The prime purpose of precision irrigation is to deliver the correct quantity of nutrients and water to the plant at the optimal time and in the right place.

To achieve this, the system continuously monitors climate, soil, leaf moisture and other variables, and adjusts irrigation according to these needs.

“When you develop a new farming project or, for example, a new orchard or vineyard, a host of questions must be answered, and a team of irrigation experts must be involved in the process,” says Chris Malan, agronomy manager at Netafim South Africa.

“Irrigation planning is based on data from analyses done and decisions made throughout the planning process.”

Variables to consider As a farmer, your first task is to analyse a number of basic, but crucial, agronomic variables:

The climate in your area; The soil type (physical and chemical attributes); Water composition and availability; Topography (the shape and features of the terrain); The availability of electricity; Diseases and pests.

Managing salt uptake in lettuce with biology

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Submitted by Elsewhere on 2020-Nov-30 Mon 11:18
2020-Nov-30 Mon 11:18
2300

Studies in the United States have shown the important role soil biology plays in managing high sodium levels in lettuce crops. To assist growers with managing their salt, a biological product has been developed – and the benefits have been wide-ranging, including improved crop quality and higher…

📄 Automating irrigation with the Arduino controller

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Submitted by Elsewhere on 2020-Nov-10 Tue 12:27
2020-Nov-10 Tue 12:27
2092

A research trial was conducted in the greenhouse of the Community of Mollepata in Ayacucho, Peru. The objective of the work was to develop an automated irrigation system with an Arduino control board in order to grow hydroponic crops. The system uses an Arduino ATmega328P board to connect different…

📺 "Self-watering soil could transform farming"

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Submitted by Elsewhere on 2020-Nov-06 Fri 11:03
2020-Nov-06 Fri 11:03
2065

500Foods shared this story from HD.com. A new type of soil created by engineers at The University of Texas at Austin can pull water from the air and distribute it to plants, potentially expanding the map of farmable land around the globe to previously inhospitable places and reducing water use in agriculture at a time of growing droughts. As published…

📄 Combined Effects of Induced Water Deficit and Foliar Application of Silicon on the Gas Exchange of Tomatoes for Processing

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Submitted by Elsewhere on 2020-Nov-05 Thu 09:58
2020-Nov-05 Thu 09:58
2049

The beneficial effects of silicon (Si) on plants have been widely reported for its fruit qualitative improvements, growth gains, and protection against abiotic and biotic stresses. This study aimed to evaluate the combined effect of soil water potential (Ψs) (−30 and −60 kPa) and the foliar application of Si (0.0 (control), 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, and 4.0 g L−1) in the development of tomatoes grown in a greenhouse. We evaluated the biometric parameters and gas exchange in three periods (20, 34, and 48 days after planting). The rates of transpiration (E), stomatal conductance (gs), and net photosynthesis assimilation (An) were lower when the plants were subjected to water deficit. The foliar application of Si attenuated the effect of the water deficit in both levels applied to the crop. A high response was observed at −60 kPa, regardless of the evaluated period. However, a significant effect was not observed on the relative chlorophyll index and biomass accumulation when Si was applied. A foliar application up to 2.8 g L−1 promotes increases in An,gs, and E. It is highlighted that Si can promote improvements in gas exchange when plants are affected by a water deficit.

Australia: Recycled water proves fruitful for greenhouse tomatoes

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Submitted by Elsewhere on 2020-Oct-30 Fri 13:13
2020-Oct-30 Fri 13:13
1988

In the driest state in the driest continent in the world, South Australian farmers are acutely aware of the impact of water shortages and drought. So, when it comes to irrigation, knowing which method works best is vital for sustainable crop development. Now, new research from the University of South…

Effects of Drip Irrigation Emitter Density with Various Irrigation Levels on Physiological Parameters, Root, Yield, and Quality of Cherry Tomato

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Submitted by Elsewhere on 2020-Oct-30 Fri 12:48
2020-Oct-30 Fri 12:48
1996

Root morphology and its components’ behavior could show a considerable response under multiple water application points per plant to help the ultimate effect of fruit yield and fruit quality. In this study, a comparison of a single emitter per plant was made with two, three, and four emitters per plant under drip irrigation and two irrigation levels (full irrigation 100% and deficit irrigation 75% of crop evapotranspiration) to investigate their effects on physiological parameters, root, yield, and their associated components for potted cherry tomato under greenhouse conditions in Jiangsu-China. The experimental results showed that the plants cultivated in the spring-summer planting season showed significantly higher results than the fall-winter planting season due to low temperatures in the fall-winter planting season. However, the response root length, root average diameter, root dry mass, leaf area index, photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate, fruit unit fresh weight, the number of fruits, and pH were increased by multiple emitters per plant over a single emitter per plant, but total soluble solids decreased. Besides, a decreasing trend was observed by deficit irrigation for both planting seasons, and vice versa for the case for tomato total soluble solids.

New video on interpreting your irrigation water quality

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Submitted by Elsewhere on 2020-Oct-07 Wed 16:33
2020-Oct-07 Wed 16:33
1722

A new YouTube video (https://youtu.be/lkSiSmDwIqw) by Dr. Paul Fisher from the University of Florida IFAS Extension describes how to sample, interpret, and solve chemical issues for water used to irrigate greenhouses and nurseries. Dr. Fisher introduces the free online WaterQual tool at cleanwater3.org to interpret your water quality analysis. This video is the first in […]

Using LED grow lights and less irrigation makes stronger plants

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Submitted by Elsewhere on 2020-Sep-30 Wed 15:46
2020-Sep-30 Wed 15:46
1611

Hort Americas is currently working on a germination and propagation project of leafy greens and culinary herbs. The project is in collaboration with their demonstration greenhouse partners, The State Fair of Texas and the Big Tex Urban Farms. Big Tex Urban farms provide the labor needed to grow […]

Using LED grow lights and less irrigation makes stronger plants

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Submitted by Elsewhere on 2020-Sep-29 Tue 09:40
2020-Sep-29 Tue 09:40
1591

Hort Americas is currently working on a germination and propagation project of leafy greens and culinary herbs. The project is in collaboration with their demonstration greenhouse partners, The State Fair of Texas and the Big Tex Urban Farms. Big Tex Urban farms provide the labor needed to grow and…

Create the perfect water balance with automated controls

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Submitted by Elsewhere on 2020-Sep-21 Mon 09:57
2020-Sep-21 Mon 09:57
1434

During Wageningen University’s Autonomous Greenhouse Challenge team AuTomatoes applied the principles of Plant Empowerment in their winning AI strategy. Thus, the team’s strategy was focused on the plant and its balances, in order to create a balanced and empowered crop. So how did they do this?…

Autonomous peroxide generation system promises crop boost

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Submitted by Elsewhere on 2020-Sep-09 Wed 08:12
2020-Sep-09 Wed 08:12
1272

A new irrigation water treatment solution provides autonomous peroxide generation for improved crop protection, increased yields, and reduced irrigation system maintenance. 'HPNow’s HPGen A-Series product line is specifically designed for the needs of horticulture growers. This autonomous system…

Partial root-zone drying and deficit irrigation effect on greenhouse grown grafted tomato

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Submitted by Elsewhere on 2020-Sep-04 Fri 08:22
2020-Sep-04 Fri 08:22
1227

The tomato is an important horticultural crop, the cultivation of which is often under influence of abiotic and biotic stressors. Grafting is a technique used to alleviate these problems. Shortage of water has stimulated the introduction of new irrigation methods: deficit irrigation (DI) and partial…

Automated irrigation techniques

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Submitted by Elsewhere on 2020-Sep-03 Thu 09:28
2020-Sep-03 Thu 09:28
1216

Jeff Neff, Senior Applications Technician at Argus Controls, discusses  irrigation techniques and automation, including considerations that can be important when deciding which system to choose advantages of automating this process, as well as key considerations for implementing automated irrigation by using irrigation solutions…

First controllable and transportable irrigation water treatment system installed

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Submitted by Elsewhere on 2020-Sep-01 Tue 09:10
2020-Sep-01 Tue 09:10
1197

Duncan Family Farms, a family-owned, multi-regional grower of over 7,000 acres of certified organic produce, announced the installation of a highly effective, controllable and transportable treatment system for irrigation water. The installation, including 5 systems on organic baby tender leaf crops in…

Irrigation de-mystified: 'Follow the rules of thumb and the plant performs as required'

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Submitted by Elsewhere on 2020-Aug-17 Mon 07:53
2020-Aug-17 Mon 07:53
1063

In the first article in a mini-series on irrigation in semi-closed glasshouses Godfrey Dol discussed the right tools required to measure irrigation. In this second part he takes a look at the most important rules in irrigation. 1) A healthy, mature tomato plant uses approximately 1.7 ml/Joule/M2. Light…

Irrigation de-mystified: 'growers like to be on the safe side, risking overwatering their crops'

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Submitted by Elsewhere on 2020-Aug-13 Thu 10:07
2020-Aug-13 Thu 10:07
1033

Plants need water and fertilizer to grow. In the hi-tech glasshouse industry, growers apply both at the same time. A fertilizer injection system provides the fertilizer, and the drip irrigation system distributes the water evenly to the plants. How hard can it be? When Godfrey Dol, he is writing the…