Genetics

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Molecular farming for food: How Moolec Science taps ‘the best of plant- and cell-based’ to develop alternative proteins

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Submitted by Elsewhere on 2020-Nov-25 Wed 11:26
2233

Moolec Science has developed a hybrid concept â which combines plant-based and cell-based technologies â to make affordable alternative proteins for food. FoodNavigator caught up with the companyâs co-founders to find out how molecular farming can boost ingredient functionality.

Biological clock and extra gene pairs control important plant functions

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Submitted by Elsewhere on 2020-Nov-06 Fri 11:02
2067

The biological clock of a popular food crop controls close to three-quarters of its genes, according to research from Dartmouth College. The genetic research shows how the crop uses internal responses to the day-night cycle--known as circadian rhythms--to regulate processes such as reproduction,…

📄 Chromosome Manipulation for Plant Breeding Purposes

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Submitted by Elsewhere on 2020-Nov-02 Mon 12:54
2019

The transfer of genetic variability from related species into crops has been a main objective for decades in breeding programs. Breeders have used interspecific genetic crosses and alien introgression lines to achieve this goal, but the success is always dependent on the interspecific chromosome associations between the alien chromosomes and those from the crop during early meiosis. In this Special Issue, the strength of chromosome manipulation in a breeding framework is revealed through research and review papers that combine molecular markers, cytogenetics tools and other traditional breeding techniques. The papers and reviews included in this Special Issue “Chromosome manipulation for plant breeding purposes” describe the development and/or characterization of new plant material carrying desirable traits and the study of chromosome associations and recombination during meiosis. New tools to facilitate the transfer of desired traits from a donor species into a crop can be developed by expanding the knowledge of chromosome associations during meiosis.

Gene Expression in 1-Methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) Treated Tomatoes

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Submitted by Elsewhere on 2020-Oct-29 Thu 12:54
1983

The physiology of fruit ripening is defined as either ‘climacteric’ or ‘non-climacteric’. In climacteric fruit respiration during ripening increases until it reaches a peak, which is accompanied by an increase in autocatalytic ethylene production, whereas the respiration of non-climacteric fruit does not increase and they have no requirement for ethylene to complete their ripening. In an attempt to gain further insight into the involvement of autocatalytic ethylene production with the climacteric rise in respiration, tomato fruit were harvested at three defined stages of maturity prior to the climacteric peak (mature green, breaker, and early orange) and immediately exposed to the gaseous molecule 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP). The gene expression profile at each of these stages was monitored after 24 h, using an Affymetrix tomato microarray chip. This approach enabled us to identify ethylene responsive genes that are commonly regulated at early stages of ripening, as well as new candidate genes. In addition, 1-MCP treatment affected the levels of metabolites related to methionine biosynthesis. Methionine feeds climacteric ethylene production and we found that promotors of the genes of enzymes that catalyze the production of homoserine and homocysteine (aspartokinase/homoserine dehydrogenases and cystathionine beta lyase, respectively), precursors in the methionine pathway, contain the AtSR1 binding motif.

Grafting with epigenetically-modified rootstock yields surprise

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Submitted by Elsewhere on 2020-Oct-26 Mon 09:35
1921

Novel grafted plants — consisting of rootstock epigenetically modified to “believe” it has been under stress — joined to an unmodified scion, or above-ground shoot, give rise to progeny that are more vigorous, productive and resilient than the parental plants. The grafted tomato plants involved in the…

Spanish scientists identify the tomato gene involved in the accumulation of cesium

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Submitted by Elsewhere on 2020-Oct-26 Mon 09:15
1930

A study led by researchers from the Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) has identified a tomato gene that is involved in the accumulation of cesium and that plays a key role in the formation of seedless tomato fruits. This advance opens a door for the cultivation of this vegetable in…

CRISPR used to make sweet potatoes larger and more nutritious

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Submitted by Elsewhere on 2020-Oct-20 Tue 09:34
1867

Samuel Acheampong hails from a farmer family from the Ashanti Region of southern Ghana. His family cultivated cassava, yams, plantains, tomatoes, peppers and other crops. These days, Acheampong works mostly in a science lab, but his interest in farming remains strong and he is using the Nobel…

CRISPR and our food supply: What’s next in feeding the world?

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Submitted by Elsewhere on 2020-Oct-14 Wed 13:03
1810

The latest adventure in food enhancement is CRISPR (e.g., clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/Cas9) gene-editing technology. It potentially has many major implications for enhanced global agriculture and much needed improvements in food security. CRISPR and gene editing tools…

Physiological roles of tryptophan decarboxylase revealed by overexpression of SlTDC1 in tomato

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Submitted by Elsewhere on 2020-Oct-12 Mon 12:26
1775

SlTDC1, a candidate gene for tryptophan decarboxylase (TDC) in tomato, was the focus of a new study because SlTDC1 may play a role in the biosynthesis of serotonin (Hano et al., 2017), which is a novel functional ingredient because of its anti-obesity effects; further, its developmental roles are largely…

EC green light for new GM soybean: Is this good or bad news for our health and environment?

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Submitted by Elsewhere on 2020-Oct-07 Wed 12:07
1720

The European Commission has authorised a new GMO for food and feed – a genetically modified soybean developed by Bayer. While some welcome the approval, others fear the risk of contamination threatens the GMO-free food production chain.

EU innovation project to increase resilience and quality of tomato varieties

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Submitted by Elsewhere on 2020-Oct-02 Fri 08:54
1633

WUR researchers will participate in the new EU research initiative HARNESSTOM. In this project breeding companies, scientists and farmers join forces to increase resilience and quality of tomato varieties. Tomato is a paradigm of crop domestication: a widely cultivated and consumed vegetable but with…

Genetic & Agronomic advancements in Rice for sustainable food production

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Submitted by Elsewhere on 2020-Oct-01 Thu 11:02
1622

Rice is staple food for nearly 50% of the world population, cultivated on an area of about 150 million ha across the world (9% of total cultivated area). India has the largest rice acreage in the world, 43.8 million ha accounting for nearly one fourth of gross cultivated area in country.

Genetically redrawn San Marzano tomatoes

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Submitted by Elsewhere on 2020-Sep-29 Tue 09:41
1589

San Marzano tomatoes have been genetically redrawn by a team of researchers from Enea, CREA, Polytechnic University of Valencia and Tuscia University to obtain new organoleptic qualities from both an aesthetic and nutritional point of view. Types of San Marzano tomatoes "We maintained the typical…

International project seeks new varieties to save the banana from extinction

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Submitted by Elsewhere on 2020-Sep-25 Fri 10:17
1529

A recent Food Navigator article highlighted the progress of a global research initiative to help prevent the extinction of the banana. This fruit, which is very popular in the world, is an important food and commercial crop in tropical and subtropical regions. The most common banana variety is the…

Report: Gene-Hacking Plants and Animals Could Fight Climate Change

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Submitted by Elsewhere on 2020-Sep-24 Thu 12:17
1524

Feed Me, Seymour

When we think of geoengineering the environment to counteract global climate change, we typically conjure the image of massive projects like blocking out sunlight.

But a new report suggests that a biological approach to geoengineering — gene hacking the DNA of plants and animals to curb carbon emissions — could be a far more useful approach, according to Axios. In other words, the idea is that we need to alter the entire biosphere to make up for the damage humanity has done to the planet.

Scientists Gene-Hacked a Pest Caterpillar’s Eggs to Self-Destruct

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Submitted by Elsewhere on 2020-Sep-24 Thu 10:10
1522

Planned Obsolescence

To protect crops from the pesky fall armyworm, a caterpillar that plagues farmers around the world, a team of scientists altered its DNA so that any eggs it lays will self-destruct.

Unfortunately, the end result isn’t the dazzling explosion we’d hoped for. Rather, Wired reports, the caterpillar eggs are so overloaded with certain proteins that they’re blocked from ever developing or hatching, nipping the invasive species’ growth in the bud. Oxitec, the biotech company that developed the new worms — along with similar mosquitoes in the past — is already running small tests on its pesticide-free approach to crop protection.

Gene editing as the next gen plant breeding tool for breeders

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Submitted by Elsewhere on 2020-Sep-21 Mon 09:58
1428

The basis of plant breeding is the availability of trait variation and diversity in different crops, that can be brought together into a variety or hybrid with multiple superior qualities or characteristics. Plant breeders have been collecting wild variants of different crops for transferring better…

Gene Editing as the Next Gen Plant Breeding Tool for Breeders

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Submitted by Elsewhere on 2020-Sep-18 Fri 12:37
1409

The basis of plant breeding is the availability of trait variation and diversity in different crops, that can be brought together into a variety or hybrid with multiple superior qualities or characteristics. Plant breeders have been collecting wild variants of different crops for transferring better traits from wild to domesticated varieties.

Utrecht scientists discover fast-forward plant improvement technology

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Submitted by Elsewhere on 2020-Sep-17 Thu 09:10
1378

Utrecht scientists demonstrates a new, non-GMO technology to develop new crops at a fraction of the costs of traditional breeding. By engineering the genes of bacteria that surround the plants the scientists obtained the same outcome as adjusting genes from the plant itself. They publish their findings…

Comparison of a hundred tomato varieties' genetic sequences

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Submitted by Elsewhere on 2020-Aug-20 Thu 05:13
1084

Tomatoes come in a dizzying array of shapes, sizes and flavors—and a new study uses state-of-the-art DNA-sequencing technology to finally trace the genetic underpinnings of these differences. The comparison of 100 tomato varieties' genetic sequences reveals more than 230,000 variations within their DNA. Understanding…