News From Elsewhere Logo Banner

Research Paper

Displaying 1 - 16 of 16

Interpretation and evaluation of electrical lighting in plant factories

Profile picture for user Elsewhere
Submitted by Elsewhere on 2020-Oct-15 Thu 12:44
1819

In plant factories, light is fully controllable for crop production but involves a cost. For efficient lighting, light use efficiency (LUE) should be considered as part of light environment design.   The objectives of a new study were to evaluate and interpret the light interception, photosynthetic rate, and LUE…

Practical Applications of Plant Biostimulants in Greenhouse Vegetable Crop Production

Profile picture for user Elsewhere
Submitted by Elsewhere on 2020-Oct-14 Wed 22:08
1817

The research interest on plant biostimulant applications in vegetable crop production is gradually increasing and several reports highlight the beneficial effects that such products may have not only on crop performance but also on the quality of the final product. Moreover, numerous products with biostimulatory activity are being developed which need further evaluation under variable growing conditions and different crops. Plant hydrolysates which contain amino acids and peptides have been acclaimed with several positive effects on crop performance of diverse horticultural crops, while macro-algae are also considered effective biostimulants on plants grown under stress conditions. A recent study evaluated the use of protein hydrolysates and brown macro-algae (Ascophyllum nodosum and Ecklonia maxima) as innovative and cost effective approaches for sustainable vegetable production. The present editorial provides an overview of the main findings of that study, while discussing the practical applications that biostimulants may have in the greenhouse production of vegetable crops, aiming to increase the yield and the quality of the final produce and improve crop tolerance to abiotic stressors.

Promising composts as growing media for the production of baby leaf lettuce in a floating system

Profile picture for user Elsewhere
Submitted by Elsewhere on 2020-Oct-14 Wed 13:04
1808

The floating system is a successful strategy for producing baby leaf vegetables. Moreover, compost from agricultural and agri-food industry wastes is an alternative to peat that can be used as a component of growing media in this cultivation system. In a new study, researchers experimented with three…

Physiological roles of tryptophan decarboxylase revealed by overexpression of SlTDC1 in tomato

Profile picture for user Elsewhere
Submitted by Elsewhere on 2020-Oct-12 Mon 12:26
1775

SlTDC1, a candidate gene for tryptophan decarboxylase (TDC) in tomato, was the focus of a new study because SlTDC1 may play a role in the biosynthesis of serotonin (Hano et al., 2017), which is a novel functional ingredient because of its anti-obesity effects; further, its developmental roles are largely…

Interpretation and Evaluation of Electrical Lighting in Plant Factories with Ray-Tracing Simulation and 3D Plant Modeling

Profile picture for user Elsewhere
Submitted by Elsewhere on 2020-Oct-11 Sun 15:04
1770

In plant factories, light is fully controllable for crop production but involves a cost. For efficient lighting, light use efficiency (LUE) should be considered as part of light environment design. The objectives of this study were to evaluate and interpret the light interception, photosynthetic rate, and LUE of lettuces under electrical lights using ray-tracing simulation. The crop architecture model was constructed by 3D scanning, and ray-tracing simulation was used to interpret light interception and photosynthesis. For evaluation of simulation reliability, measured light intensities and photosynthetic rates in a growth chamber were compared with those obtained by simulation at different planting densities. Under several scenarios modeling various factors affecting light environments, changes in light interception and LUE were interpreted. The light intensities and photosynthetic rates obtained by simulation showed good agreement with the measured values, with R2 > 0.86. With decreasing planting density, the light interception of the central plant increased by approximately 18.7%, but that of neighboring plants decreased by approximately 5.5%. Under the various scenarios, shorter lighting distances induced more heterogenetic light distribution on plants and caused lower light interception.

Response of Soil Microbes and Soil Enzymatic Activity to 20 Years of Fertilization

Profile picture for user Elsewhere
Submitted by Elsewhere on 2020-Oct-10 Sat 14:04
1763

Fertilization is a worldwide agricultural practice used in agronomy to increase crop yields. Fertilizer application influences overall soil characteristics, including soil microbial community composition and metabolic processes mediated by microbial enzymatic activity. Changes in the structure of microbial communities and their metabolic activity after long-term fertilization were studied in this research. We hypothesized that the different types of fertilization regimes affect nutrient levels in the soil which subsequently influence the metabolic processes and microbial diversity and community structure. Manure (MF; 330 kg N/ha), sewage sludge at two application doses (SF; 330 kg N/ha and SF3x; 990 kg N/ha) and chemical (NPK; N-P-K nutrients in concentrations of 330-90-300 kg/ha) fertilizers have been applied regularly to an experimental field since 1996. The microbial diversity increased in all soils amended with both organic (MF, SF, SF3x) and chemical (NPK) fertilizers. The shifts in microbial communities were observed, which were mainly caused by less abundant genera that were mostly associated with one or more fertilization treatment(s). Fertilization also influenced soil chemistry and the activity of β-xylosidase, β-N-acetylglucosaminidase (NAG), acid phosphatase and FDA-hydrolases. Specifically, all fertilization treatments were associated with a higher activity of β xylosidase and lower NAG activity.

Promising Composts as Growing Media for the Production of Baby Leaf Lettuce in a Floating System

Profile picture for user Elsewhere
Submitted by Elsewhere on 2020-Oct-10 Sat 14:03
1764

The floating system is a successful strategy for producing baby leaf vegetables. Moreover, compost from agricultural and agri-food industry wastes is an alternative to peat that can be used as a component of growing media in this cultivation system. In this study, we experimented with three composts containing tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.), leek (Allium porrum L.), grape (Vitis vinifera L.), and/or olive (Olea europaea L.) mill cake residues, which were used as the main component (75/25 volume/volume) of three growing media (GM1, GM2 and GM3) to evaluate their effect on the growth and quality of red baby leaf lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.). We used a commercial peat substrate as a control treatment (100% volume) and in mixtures (25% volume) with the composts. The plants were cultivated over two growing cycles, in spring and summer, and harvested twice in each cycle when the plants had four to five leaves. We found that the percentage of seed germination was significantly higher in plants grown in peat than in those grown in compost growing media. The yield was affected by the growing media in the summer cycle, and we obtained the highest value with GM1. Furthermore, the second cut was more productive than the first one for all the growing media in both cycles. The lettuce quality was also affected by the growing media.

Mystery solved: How do tips of plants stay virus-free?

Profile picture for user Elsewhere
Submitted by Elsewhere on 2020-Oct-09 Fri 13:28
1752

Plants are able to keep growing indefinitely because they have tissues made of meristems—plant stem cells—which have the unique ability to transform themselves into the various specialized cells that make up the plant, dividing whenever appropriate and producing new cells of whatever type as needed.…

Impact of UV-C radiation on disease sensitivity and fruit quality of strawberry

Profile picture for user Elsewhere
Submitted by Elsewhere on 2020-Oct-08 Thu 11:03
1731

Ultraviolet-C (UV-C) radiation is efficient in reducing the development of diseases in many species, including strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa). Several studies suggest that UV-C radiation is effective not only because of its disinfecting effect but also because it may stimulate plant defenses. In a new…

Management of abiotic stress in horticultural crops

Profile picture for user Elsewhere
Submitted by Elsewhere on 2020-Oct-06 Tue 12:34
1691

Horticultural crops are exposed to multiple abiotic stresses because of ongoing climate change. Abiotic stresses such as drought, extreme temperatures, salinity, and nutrient deficiencies are causing increasing losses in terms of yield and product quality. The horticultural sector is therefore searching…

Alleviation of Salt Stress by Plant Growth-Promoting Bacteria in Hydroponic Leaf Lettuce

Profile picture for user Elsewhere
Submitted by Elsewhere on 2020-Oct-06 Tue 12:29
1682

Mediterranean areas with intensive agriculture are characterized by high salinity of groundwater. The use of this water in hydroponic cultivations can lead to nutrient solutions with an electrical conductivity that overcomes the tolerance threshold of many vegetable species. Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) were shown to minimize salt stress on several vegetable crops but the studies on the application of PGPR on leafy vegetables grown in hydroponics are rather limited and have not been used under salt stress conditions. This study aimed to evaluate the use of plant growth-promoting bacteria to increase the salt tolerance of leaf lettuce grown in autumn and spring in a floating system, by adding a bacterial biostimulant (1.5 g L−1 of TNC BactorrS13 a commercial biostimulant containing 1.3 × 108 CFU g−1 of Bacillus spp.) to mineral nutrient solutions (MNS) with two salinity levels (0 and 20 mM NaCl). Leaf lettuce plants showed a significant reduction of growth and yield under salt stress, determined by the reduction of biomass, leaf number, and leaf area. Plants showed to be more tolerant to salinity in autumn than in spring.

Plant growth-promotors and their effects on tomato seedlings

Profile picture for user Elsewhere
Submitted by Elsewhere on 2020-Oct-05 Mon 13:33
1666

Plant biostimulants are of interest as they can stimulate plant growth and increase resource utilization. There is still no information on the use of plant growth-promoters under variable nutritional conditions in the nursery and the effects on tomato seedling growth and plant performance after…

Management of Abiotic Stress in Horticultural Crops: Spotlight on Biostimulants

Profile picture for user Elsewhere
Submitted by Elsewhere on 2020-Oct-05 Mon 13:28
1660

Horticultural crops are currently exposed to multiple abiotic stresses because of ongoing climate change. Abiotic stresses such as drought, extreme temperatures, salinity, and nutrient deficiencies are causing increasing losses in terms of yield and product quality. The horticultural sector is therefore searching for innovative and sustainable agronomic tools to enhance crop tolerance towards these unfavorable conditions. In a recent review published in Agronomy, “Biostimulants Application in Horticultural Crops under Abiotic Stress Conditions”, Bulgari and colleagues discussed the main pieces of evidence of the use of biostimulants to manage abiotic stresses in vegetable crops. The intent of this editorial was to focus the attention on aspects related to the stress development in plants (i.e., timing and occurrence of multiple stress factors), in combination with the application of biostimulants. The large number of factors potentially involved in the enhancement of crop tolerance toward stress calls for an intensification of research activities, especially when conducted in field conditions and with well-defined protocols. This must be seen as a mandatory task for a successful implementation of biostimulant products among the available agronomic tools for the management of abiotic stresses in horticultural crops.

Fertigation Management and Growth-Promoting Treatments Affect Tomato Transplant Production and Plant Growth after Transplant

Profile picture for user Elsewhere
Submitted by Elsewhere on 2020-Oct-03 Sat 13:48
1650

Plant biostimulants are of interest as they can stimulate plant growth and increase resource utilization. There is still no information on the use of plant growth-promoters under variable nutritional conditions in the nursery and the effects on tomato seedling growth and plant performance after transplant. This study aimed to evaluate the suitability of gibberellic acid (GA3) or bacterial biostimulant treatments to enhance the growth and quality of greenhouse-grown tomato (Solanum lycopersicum ‘Marmande’) seedlings, fertigated with increasing nutrient rates and to assess the efficacy of these treatments on the early growth of tomato plants. During autumn 2019, tomato seedlings were inoculated with 1.5 g L−1 of TNC BactorrS13 (a commercial biostimulant containing 1.3 × 108 CFU g−1 of Bacillus spp.) or sprayed with 10−5 M GA3 and fertigated with a nutrient solution containing 0, 1, 2 and 4 g L−1 of NPK fertilizer (20-20-20) when they reached the 11th BBCH growth stage for tomato. Subsequently, the seedlings were evaluated in greenhouse cultivation for 60 days until at least the 61st BBCH growth stage (January 2020). The growth of the tomato seedlings increased curvilinearly in relation to the fertigation rates.

Study delves into tomatoes' wild ancestors

Profile picture for user Elsewhere
Submitted by Elsewhere on 2020-Sep-30 Wed 09:30
1606

Wild tomato species represent a rich gene pool for numerous desirable traits lost during domestication. Among them are e.g. robustness in harsh environment or resistance to various pathogens. An international research team, including scientists from Weizmann Institute of Science and IPK, exploited an…

Effect of bacterial inoculum and fertigation management on lettuce plants

Profile picture for user Elsewhere
Submitted by Elsewhere on 2020-Sep-29 Tue 09:41
1586

Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria have been applied to different vegetable crops but there is still no information on the effect of bacterial biostimulant application under variable nutritional level on lettuce seedlings and their performance after transplanting in the field. This study aimed to…